F  I  S  I  O  L  O  G  I  A     D  E  P  O  R  T  I  V  A
S P O R T   P H Y S I O L O G Y

 

     DR. RAMÓN SEGURA CARDONA

 

SELECTED PUBLICATIONS
 

 

Libros

R. Segura Cardona
Nociones de físicoquímica para estudiantes de Ciencias de la salud
18 i 28 edició: Editorial Espaxs, Barcelona 1968, 1971; 38 edició: Salvat editores, Barcelona 1980, 1987; 302 p

W.M. Stanley, J. Casals, J. Oró y R. Segura
Virus y cáncer: Homenaje a F. Durán Reynals; Edición: SEB, Barcelona 1971 ; 452 pp
Advances in Chromatography 1981

Zlatkis, R. Segura and L.S. Ettre (eds)
Chromatography Symposium, Houston (Texas) 1981; 591 pp

R. Segura Cardona
Prácticas de Fisiología
Masson I Salvat (editores), Barcelona 1987 (18 edició), 1987 i 1994 (reimpressions)

J.Oró, C. Cuchillo, E. Querol, R. Segura y P. Suau (editors)
Virus, oncogenes y cáncer; Publicaciones UAB, Barcelona 1988; 223 pp

R. Segura Cardona (1989)
Ejercicio Físico y Fatiga
Monografías Médicas Jano, Vol. 3, Nº 8, Octubre 1989
Segura Cardona, R. (1989). Physical Exercise and Fatigue.

R. Segura Cardona
Exercici físic i salut
Departament de Sanitat i Seguretat Social; Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona 1991; 48 pp

A. Estruch, J. Galilea, G. Rodas, F. Rodríguez, E. Roure, E. Saltó, A. Santaularia, R. Segura, C. Vallbona
Guía per a la promoci6 de la salud per mitjà de l'activitat física
Departament de Sanitat i Seguretat Social
Generalitat de Catalunya, Barcelona 1993; 128 pp

R. Segura, S. Web, J.L. Tovar y C. Gausí
Los minerales y la salud
Plaza y Janés (editores), Barcelona 2000; 391 pp

R. Segura Cardona
Diccionario Terminológico de Ciencias Médicas
Contribució als temes de Bioquímica i Fisiología
Salvat Editores, Barcelona 1984; 1209 pp

R. Segura Cardona
Diccionario médico Roche
Versió espanyola de la primera edició en alemany (varios autors)
Ediciones Doyma, Barcelona 1993; 2413pp

R. Segura Cardona
Versió espanyola del Texto y atlas de Fisiología (Autors: A. Despopoulos y S. Silbernagl)
Mosby/Doyma Libros, Barcelona 1994; 366 pp

Segura, R. (2008).
Àcids Grassos Omega-3: els Àcids Grassos Perduts i, ara, Retrobats?
Discurs d’ingrès llegit per l’Acadèmic Electe el día 28 de setembre de 2008
REIAL ACADÈMIA DE MEDICINA DE CATALUNYA

Omega-3 Fatty Acids: the fatty acids lost and now re-finded

 

Capítulos de libros

R. Segura
Vitaminas y sus principales propiedades.
"Diccionario Terminológico de Ciencias Médicas"
Salvat editores.-Barcelona

R. Segura and A.M. Gotto
Lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities in renal disease.
"The Kidney in Systemic Disease {W.N. Suki and G. Eknoyan, eds)
John Wiley & Sons, New York 1976; 159-200

R. Segura
Análisis cuantitativo por medio de cromatografía
espectrofluoromé trigo .
"Avances en Bioquímica" (Homenaje a Severo Ochoa)
(L. Cornudella, C.F. Heredia, J. Oró y A. Sois, eds)
Salvat editores, Barcelona 1977; -593

J.D. Morrisett. H.J. Pownall. R.L. Jackson. R. Segura, A.M. Gotto and O.D. Taunton
Effects of polyunsaturated and saturated fat diets on the chemical composition and the notropic
properties of human plasma lipoproteins.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids.' ( W.H. Kunau and R. T. Holman, eds)
Publications of the America Oil Chemists' Society. Champaign 1977; 139-161

R. Segura
Bioquímica del sistema nervioso central.
"Enfermedades del sistema nervioso central" (M. Balcells, ed)
Hospital del Sagrado Corazón, Barcelona 1981; 9-32

R. Segura, X. Navarro
Use of metal salts as fluorescence-inducing reagents in thin-Iayer chromatography.
"Adavances in Chromatography 1981D (A. Zlakis, R. Segura and L.E. Ettre, eds)
Chromatography Symposium, Hosuton 1986 : 319-330.

V. Valle, S. Martín-Ayuso y R. Segura
Fisiología clínica cardiocirculatoria
"Cardiología- (F. Bayés y J. Soler, eds)
Ediciones Doyma, Barcelona 1986; 28-58

R. Segura
Los ejercicios prácticos en la enseñanza de la medicina.
"Seminarios Salvat de Medicina"
Salvat editores, Barcelona 1986

R. Segura
Composición y estructura de las lipoproteínas.
"Lipoproteínas plasmáticas y arteriosclerosis coronaria (varios autores)
Editorial MCR, Barcelona 1987; 29-71

R. Segura
La pasta en la alimentación del deportista.
"La pasta como alimento en la salud y la enfermedad" (varios autores)
Academia española de la pasta, Barcelona 1988; 57-81

R. Segura
Estrés y fisiología cardiovascular en la cardiopatía isquémica.
"Estrés y cardiopatía coronaria" (M. Valdés, T. De Flores y S. García, eds.
Alamex s.A., Barcelona 1988; 37-55

R. Segura
¿ Cómo inf1uye la alimentación en el rendimiento deportivo ? .
"Nutrición e investigación" (varios autores)
CAPS, Barcelona 1988; 1-10

R. Segura
Análisis of Ionic and Neutral Lipids by Mono-dimensional Thin-layer Chromatography and "in
situ" Spectrofluorometry.
"Instrumental Thin-layer Chromatography I Planar Chromatography" (R. Kaiser, ed.)
Hüthig VerlaQ, Heidelberg,1989; 211-216

R. Segura
Las prostaglandinas como reguladores químicos de la presión arterial.
"II Jornadas sobre Hipertensión Arterial" (varios autores)
Societat Catalana de Hipertensió Arterial, Barcelona 1990; 56-85

R. Segura
Introducción al metabolismo de los principios inmediatos.
"Medicina Interna (Farreras/Rozman)
Ediciones DOYMA, Barcelona 1991; 1771-1787

R. Segura
Enfermedades del sistema cardiovascular.
"Manual de Nutrición y dietética" {varios autores )
Consejo General de Colegios Farmacéuticos, Barcelona 1992; 584-611

R. Segura
Acidos grasos y rendimiento deportivo.
"Advances in Sports Nutrition"
I World Congreso on Sports Nutrition
Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia I Consejo General de Deportes, Barcelona 1992; 93-115

R. Segura
Alimentaci6n y deporte.
"Programa de formación permanente'.
Federación Farmacéutica, Barcelona 1992 ~: 1-15

R. Segura
Fatty Acids and Physical Exercise.
"Sports and Exercise in Midlife" (S.l. Gordon, X. González- Mestre, W.E. Garret, eds)
American Society of Orthopedic Surgeons, Baltimore 1993; 345-361

E. Garrido, C. Javierre, A. Capdevila, J. Pujol, J.L. Ventura y R. Segura
Neuroimagen cerebral en Sherpas del Himalaya expuestos a extrema altitud.
"Avances en Medicina de Montaña" 1995; 125-130

R. Segura Cardona
Alimentación y deporte
"Nutrición y dietética clínica" (J.Salas, A. Bonada, R. Trallero y M.E. Saló, eds)
Doyrna libros, Barcelona 2000; 119-135
Segura Cardona, R. (2000). Nutrition and Sport.

c. Javierre, J.L. Ventura, R. Segura, M8.A. Lizarraga y E. Garrido
Ritmos circadianos y deporte.
"Ejercicio físico y estrés medioambiental" (J.L. Chicharro, ed)
Boehringer Ingelheim, Madrid 2000; 103-121

R. Segura
Bioquímica del tejido conjuntivo y del tejido muscular.
"Lecciones básicas de biomecánica del aparato locomotor" (A. Viladot y cols.
Springer Verlag-Ibérica, Barcelona 2001; 15-41

R. Segura, C. Javierre, M.A. Lizarraga y J.L. Ventura
Hidratación-deshidratación y rendimiento deportivo
"Salud integral del deportista" (J.R. Serra Grima, ed.)
Springer Verlag-lbérica, Barcelona 2001; 39-56
Segura Cardona, R. (2001). Hydration-dehydration and Sport Performance

R. Segura
Nutrición y deporte.
"Nutrición en atención primaria" {varios autores)
Novartis, Madrid 2001; 115-129

J.L. Ventura, N. Balagué, C. Javierre, E. Garrido, M. Calvo y R. Segura
Respuesta cardiovascular al ejercicio físico en niños sanos.
"Actividad física en la infancia y aparato cardiovascular" (J.R. Serra Grima, ed)
Masson, Barcelona 2001

R. Segura
Pescados y mariscos.
"Guías alimentarias para la población espanola" (varios autores)
IM&C, S.A. I SENC 2001; 29-44

R. Segura y C. Javierre
Anatomía y fisiología cardíaca.
"Fisiopatología y técnicas de circulación extracorpórea"
Barcelona 2003

R. Segura
Alimentació i energia: la dictadura del metabolisme
"Saber popular i alimentació" (varios autors)".
Biblioteca Univesitaria -Universitat de Barcelona, 2004 105-133.

R. Segura, C. Javierre y M.A. Lizarraga
Componentes minoritarios de los frutos secos
En "Frutos secos y culturas mediterráneas". J. Salas, E. Ros y J. Sabaté eds
Fundación Nucís, Reus, 2005 pp 201-229

 

Artículos en Revistas Científicas

P. García de Jalón, R. Segura, L. Lastra Santos
Inhibición "in vitro" de polipéptidos úteroactivos por los extractos de diversos órganos.
Actas de la Sociedad Española de Ciencias Fisiológicas, 1961 : 151-154

R. Segura
Inhibición de la angiotensina, de la bradicinina y de la oxitocina por extractos de órganos
diversos. R. esp. Fisiol., 1964: 27-35

R. Segura, K. Soehring
Dünnschichtchromatographischer nachweiss kleinster mengen von katecholaminen und deren
derivaten. Med. Exp., 1964 .1Q: 251-257

R. Segura, C. Benasco, S. Vidal Sivilla
Análisis cromatográfico en capa fina del colesterol y de sus ésteres presentes en el suero
humano. Actas de la Sociedad Española de Ciencias Fisiológicas 1964 ~: 183-185

C. Benasco, R. Segura
Análisis del colesterol y de sus ésteres presentes en la piel humana.
Actas de la Sociedad Española de Ciencias Fisiológicas 1964 : 187-190

R. Segura, K. Soehring
Método para separar e identificar catecolaminas y sus derivados por cromatograffa en capa fina
Actas de la Sociedad Española de Ciencias Fisiológicas 1964 Ylli: 191-193

R. Segura
Método de separación de los pigmentos biliares del suero por cromatografla en capa fina sobre
poliamida. R. esp. Fisiol., 1966

R. Segura
Fluorescencia de catecolaminas y sus derivados por medio de condensación con formaldehido.
Actas de la Sociedad Española de Ciencias Fisiológicas 1967 : 95-99

R. Segura
Aplicación y utilidad de diversos tejidos como soportes del absorbente para la cromatografía en
capa fina. Actas de la Sociedad Española de Ciencias Fisiológicas 1967 : 313-317

J.L. Cashaw, R. Segura, A. Zlatkis
The development and characterization of a new micro-adsorption detector for supercritical fluid
chomatography. J. Chrom. Sci., 1970 : 313-317

R. Segura, J. Oró, A. Zlatkis
Resolution of steroid glucoronides by thin-layer chromatography on polyamide.
J. Chrom. Sci., 1970.: 449-451

R. Segura, O. Cardús
Fluorescence of lipid compounds reacted with antimony trichloride on thin-layer chromatograms.
Fed. Proc., 1972 : 3472

M. Novotny, R. Segura. A. Zlatkis
High-temperature gas-chromatographic separations using glass-capillary columns and
carbonate stationary phases. Anal. Chem.. 1972 : 9-14

R. Segura, D. Cardús
Improved separation and quantitation of plasma cholesteryl esters by thin layer chromatography
using contnuous development and spectrofluorometry. The Physiologist. 1972 .1§: 261

R. Segura, E. Stahl
Propuestas para la normalización de procedimientos y de terminología empleados en
cromatografía en capa fina. 1974 M: 11-18/167-174

R. Segura, A.M. Gotto
A new fluorometric procedure for the detection and quantitation of organic compounds in thin-
layer chromatography. J. Chromatog. 1974 ~: 643-647

O.D. Taunton, J.D. Morrisett, R. Segura, H.J. Pownall, R.l. Jackson, A.M. Gotto
Effect of dietary fatty acid composition on lipoprotein structure.. Circulation, 1974 

G.R. Thompson, R. Segura, H. Hoff, A.M. Gotto
Influence of exogenous fat on the metabolism of low density lipoproteins (LDL) in man: possible
mechanism for rise in LDL after intravenous fat. J. Clin. Invest., 1974: 80a

G.R. Thompson, R. Segura, H. Hoff., A.M. Gotto
Contrasting effects on plasma lipoproteins of intravenous versus oral administration of a
triglyceride-phospholipid emulsion. Eur. J. Clin. Invest., 1975: 373-384

R. Segura, A.M. Gotto
Lipid determination in microquantities of plasma using thin1ayer-chromatography and ~
spectrofluorometry. Clin. Chem., 1975 m: 991

R. Segura
Comparative studies on plasma low density lipoproteins from pig and man.
Comp. Biochem. & Physiol., 1976 : R. Segura, X. Navarro
Use of metal salts as fluorescence-inducing reagents in thin-layer chromatography.
J. Chromatog., 1981 m: 329-340

R. Segura
Lípidos, plaquetas y endotelio vascular.
Biol. Clin. Hematológica, 1982, 1

L. Sanvicente, S. Martín, X. Navarro, M. Murtra, R. Segura, M. Petit
Quilopericardio aislado idiopático. Diagnóstico y tratamiento, a propósito de un caso.
R. esp. Cardiol., 1982 : 289-291

R. Rossell. R. Segura
Composición en ácidos grasos de los fosfolípidos de las plaquetas de diabéticos en
comparación con las de los individuos normales. Endocrinología, 1982 

R. Rossell, R. Gomis, R. Casamitjana, R. Segura, E. Vilardell, F. Rivera
Extracción hepática de insulina en la obesidad: alteraciones en relación con los niveles de
insulinemia. Endocrinología, 1982

L. Font, M. Viñallonga, J. López-Batllori, R. Segura
Composición en ácidos grasos de los fosfolípidos de las plaquetas de diabéticos en
comparación con la de individuos normales. Endocrinología, 1982: 121

R. Rossell, M. Viñallonga, R. Segura
Acidos grasos integrantes de los lípidos plasmáticos y del tejido adiposo. Estudio comparativo
entre sujetos obesos y sujetos normopeso. Endocrinología, 1982 

R. Rossell, R. Gomis, R. Casamitjana, R. Segura, E. Vilardell, F. Rivera
Reduced hepatic insulin extraction in obesity: relationship with plasma insulin levels.
J. Clin. Endoc. Metabol., 1983 : 608-611

R. Segura
Prostaglandinas y leucotrienos. Med. Clin., 1983, 1: 678-687

R. Segura
Nutrición, deporte y obesidad. Apuntes de Medicina deportiva, 1986 : 197-207

J.M. Arqué, R. Segura, R. Torrubia
Correlation of Thyroxine and Thyroid-stimulating Hormones with Personality Measurements: A
Study in Psychosomatic Patients and in Healthy Adults. Neuropsychobiology, 1987 1§.: 127 -133

X. Navarro, R. Segura
Plasma Lipids and Fatty Acids in Multiple Sclerosis. Neurology, 1987 37 (Sup I}: 298

R. Segura
Cambios en la composición de los lípidos de membrana en las células neoplásicas.
R. Reial Acad. Med. Catlunya, 1987 : 53-56

X. Navarro, R. Segura
Alteraciones de los ácidos grasos de los hematíes en la esclerosis múltiple.
Neurología, 1987 2 (supl): 34-35

J. Reig, E. Domingo, R. Segura, J.L. Tovar, M. Viñallonga, C. Arús
Influencia de la composición lipídica de la dieta en la actividad bioeléctrica del miocardio de
rata. R. esp. Cardiol., 1987 40 (SuDI): 97

R. Segura
Preparation of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters by Direct Transesterification of Lipids with
Aluminum/Chloride Methanol. J. Chromatog., 1988 .411: 99-113

X. Navarro, J.D. Cañete, J. Prat, A. de Leiva, R. Segura
Fatty Acids of Plasma and Red Blood Gel/ Lipids in a Normal Population.
R. esp. Fisiol., 1988 : 387-394

X. Navarro, R. Segura
Plasma Lipids and their Fatty Acid Composition in Multiple Sclerosis.
Acta Neurol. Scand., 1988 : 152-157

R. Segura, J.L. Ventura
Effect of L- Tryptophan Supplementation on Exercise Performance.
Int. J. Sports Med., 1988 : 301-305

X. Navarro, R. Segura
Red Blood Gel Fatty Acids in Multiple Sclerosis.
Acta Neurol. Scand., 1989 : 32-37

J. Cabrol, x. Navarro, J. Simó-Deu, R. Segura
Determinación del reflujo duodeno-gástrico mediante la cuantificación de los ácidos biliares del
jugo gástrico. R. esp. Fisiol. 1989, 4: 21-26

J. Prat, R. Pamplona, A. Sorribas, S. Martín, M. Viñallonga, R. Segura
Correlation of Plasma Lipid Fractions with calorimetrically determined Glycated Hemoglobin in a
Non-diabetic Population. Metabolism, 1989 : 1147-1153

J. Cabrol, X. Navarro, J. Simó-Deu, R. Segura
Intragastric Bile Acids in Patients with Gastric Ulcer and with Gastric Cancer.
Dig. Surg, 1989 .1Q: 9-12

R. Segura, J.L. Ventura
Efecto del Tript6fano sobre el rendimiento físico.
Apuntes de Medicina deportiva, 1989 41: 118-122

J. Cabrol, X. Navarro, J. Simó-Deu, R. Segura
Estudio del reflejo duodenogástrico en la úlcera duodenal no complicada.
Acta chirurg. Cat., 1989 Q: 171-175

J. Cabrol, X. Navarro, J. Simó-Deu, R. Segura
Evaluation of the Duodenogastric Reflux in Gallstones Disease before and after Simple
Cholecystectomy. Am. J. Surg., 1990 1§Q: 283-286

J. Cabrol, X. Navarro, J. Simó-Deu, R. Segura
Bile Reflux in Postoperative Alkaline Ref1ux Gastritis.
Ann. Surg. 1990 m: 239-245

R. Segura
¿Cómo influye la alimentación en el rendimiento del deportista?
El Farmacéutico, 1991 : 51-59

E. Escrich, R. Segura
Mecanismo de acción de los lípidos de la dieta sobre el cáncer de mama.
R. Senol. Pato. Mamaria, 1991 : 252-273

E. Escrich, R. Segura
Factores de la dieta y cáncer de mama.
R. Senol. Pato. Mamaria, 1991 §: 86-96

R. Segura
Les prostaglandines com a reguladors químics de la pressió arterial.
Ann. Med., 1991 II: 37-38

E. Escrich, J. Muntané, T. Ribalta, J. Colom, M. Solanas, R. Segura
Efectos de una dieta hiperlipídica sobre la carcinogénesis mamaria experimental: contenido y
tipo de tumores. Neoplasia, 1992 ~: 54-57

R. García-Closas, L. Serra-Majem, R. Segura
Fish consumption, úJ-3 Fatty Acids and the Mediterranean Diet.
Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 1993 : S-85 -S-90

R. Segura, P. Mestre, S. Bustamante
Formación ultra rápida de ésteres metílicos de ácidos grasos a partir de distintas clases de
lípidos por transesterificaci6n activada por micro-ondas.
Técnicas de laboratorio, 1993 1Q: 631

J. Reig, E. Domingo, J.L. Tovar, M. Viñallonga, R. Segura
Rat Myocardial Tissue Lipids and their Effect on Ventricular Electrical Activity: Influence of
Dietary Lipids. Cardiovasc. Res., 1993 ll: 364-370

E. Escrich, M. Solanas, R. Segura
Experimental Diets for the Study of Lipid Influence on the induced Mammary Carcinoma in Rats:
Diet deflnition. In vivo, 1994 §.: 1099-1106

E. Escrich, M. Solanas, M.C. Ruiz de Villa, T. Ribalta, J. Muntané, R. Segura
Experimental Diets for the Study of Lipid Influence on the induced Mammary Carcinoma in Rats:
11- Suitability of the Diets. In vivo, 1994 §: 1107 -1112

E. Domingo, J. Reig, R. Armengol. R. Segura
Comparison of the Influence of Dietary Saturated Fat and Aging in the Lipid Composition and
Bioelectric Activity of Rat Myocardium. Cardiol. Elderly. 1994 .f.: 485-496

J.L. Ventura, A. Estruch, G. Rodas, R. Segura
Effect of prior Ingestion of Glucose or Fructose on the Performance of Exercises of intermittent
duration. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., 1994 : 345-348

E. Garrido, R. Segura, A. Capdevila, J. Aldomá, F. Rodríguez, C. Javierre, J.L. Ventura
New Evidence from Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Brain Changes after Climbs at Extreme
Altitude. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., 1995 ZQ: 477-481

C. Javierre, M. Calvo, A. Diez, E. Garrido. R. Segura, J.L. Ventura
Influence of Sleep and Meal Schedules on Performance Peaks in Competitive Sprinters.
Int. J. Spor1s Med., 1995 11: 404-408.

E. Garrido, R. Segura, A. Capdevila, J. Pujol, C. Javierre, J.L. Ventura
Are Himalayan Sherpas better protected against Brain Damage associated with Extreme
Altitude Climbs? Clin. Sci., 1996, 90: 81-85

R. Segura, C. Javierre. J.L. Ventura, M.A. Lizarraga, B. Campos, E. Garrido
A New Approach to the assessment of Anaerobic Metabolism: Measurement of Lactate in
Saliva. Brit. J. Sports Med., 1996 : 305-309

C. Javierre, J.L. Ventura, R. Segura, M. Calvo, E. Garrido
Is the Post-lunch Dip in Sprinting Performance associated with the timing ingestion?
J. Physiol. Biochem., 1996 §l: 247-254

Garrido, E., Rodas, G., Javierre, C., Segura, R., Estruch, A., Ventura, J.L.
Cardiorespiratory response to exercise in elite Sherpa climbers transferred to sea level.
Medicine and science in sports and exercise (Baltimore, Md.) 29 (7), July 1997, 937-942.
Respuesta cardiorespiratoria al ejercicio en escaladores Sherpas de élite trasladados al nivel del mar.
Tesis: Altitud y riesgo neurológico: alpinistas europeos versus sherpas del Himalaya

G. Rodas, G. Ercilla, C. Javierre, E. Garrido, M. Calvo, R. Segura, J.L. Ventura
Could the
A2AII Human Leukocyte Antigen Locus correlate with maximal Aerobic Power?
Clin. Sci., 1997 : 331-332

c. Javierre, M.A. Lizarraga, J.L. Ventura, E. Garrido, R. Segura
Creatine supplementation does not improve Physical Performance in a 150 m Race.
J. Physiol. Biochem., 1997 : 343-348

C. Javierre, J.L. Ventura, R. Segura, M. Calvo, E. Garrido
Is Physical Training a Good Synchronizer of the Perfonnance Race ? .
J. Physiol. Biochem., 1997 : 239-246

M. Estorch. R. Serra-Grima, I. Carri6, A. Flotats, M.A. Lizarraga, L. Berna, T. Prats. R. Segura
Influence of prolonged Exercise on Myocardial Distribution of /-123 MIBG in Long Distance
Running. J. Nuclear Cardiol.. 1997 .1: 396-402

I. Pérez-Guerra, R. Segura, J. Canela
Relation between Childhood Blood Pressure and Parents Ocupation.
Int. J. Psychophysiol., 1997 : 22-23

Garrido E, Javierre C, Capdevila A, Pujol J, Ventura JL, Segura R.
Neuroimagen cerebral en nativos del Himalaya expuestos a extrema altitud.
ARCHIVOS DE MEDICINA DEL DEPORTE, 1997; 14: 349.

Javierre C, Lizarraga MA, Ventura JL, Garrido E, Segura R.
Saliva lactate correlates with blood lactate and can be used as a procedure for monitoring the metabolic response to different workloads.
J Physiol Biochem 1997; 53:73.

G. Rodas, M. Calvo, A. Estruch, E. Garrido, G. Ercilla, A. Arcas, R. Segura, J.L. Ventura
Heritability of running Economy: A Study made in Twin Brothers.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol., 1998 II: 511-516

G. Rodas, C. Javierre, E. Garrido, R. Segura, J.L. Ventura
Normoxic Ventilatory Response in Lowlander and Sherpa Elite Climbers.
Resp. Physiol., 1998, 113: 57-64

J. Feliu, J.L. Ventura, R. Segura, G. Rodas, J. Riera, A. Estruch, A. Zamora, L. Capdevila
Differences between Lactate Concentration of Samples from Ear-lobe and Finger-tip.
J. Physiol. Biochem., 1999: 333-340

c. Biehl, R. Segura, G. Rodas, J.L. Ventura
Comparison of fhe Basal Mefabolic Rafe among Champions of two Nationalities in Olympic and
World Games. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 1999 ~: S-909

C. Javierre, M.A. Lizarraga, R. Segura
Fisiología de l'aparell digestiu. Quaderns didàctics Cienc. Apli. Esport, 1999 1l: 15-21

R. Segura, M.A. Lizarraga, C. Javierre
Consideraciones fundamentales sobre la dieta y el ejercicio físico.
Actividad dietética, 1999.§: 7-15

E. Garrido, C. Javierre, J.L. Ventura, R. Segura
Hallucinalory Experiences al High Altitude. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychol. Behav, Neurolo, 2000 : 148

R. Segura
Nutrición y deporte. Salud rural, 2000, 111-120
E. Escrich, M. Solanas, M. Soler, M.C. Ruiz de Villa, J.A. Sánchez, R. Segura
Dietary Polyunsaturated n-6 Lipids Effects on the Growth and Fatty Acid Composition of Rat
Mammary Tumors. J. Nutr. Biochem.. 2001 ~: 536-549

R. Segura
Características más destacadas de los nutrientes que forman parte de la dieta mediterránea y
sus efectos sobre la salud. Ponencia sobre "Dieta Mediterránea". Senado, Madrid, 2002

R. Segura
Deporte, nutrición y cambios bioquímicos.
Actas Soc. esp. Bioquímica Clin. y Patol. Mol., 2002 22 pp

R. Segura
Ayudas ergogénicas.
Actes del Congrés de la Societat Catalana de Medicina de l'Esport. 2002 15 pp

J. Vidal, C. Javierre, F.J. Curiá, E. Garrido, M.A. Lizarraga, R. Segura
Long-tenn Evolution of Blood Lipid profiles and Glycemic levels after Spinal Cord Injury.
Spinal Cord, 2003 .41: 178-181.

J. Vidal, C. Javierre, M.A. Lizarraga, J.R. Barbany, R. Segura
Physiological Adaptations to Exercise in People with Spinal Cord Injury.
J. Phsiol. Biochem., 2003: 11-18

E. Garrido, C. Javierre, R. Segura, J.L. Ventura
ECG of a Record Everest Sherpa Climber.
High Altitude Med. Biol., 2003 .4: 259-260

Segura, R. (2003).
Sobre-Entrenamiento.
XIV Jornadas Médicas de la Asociación Española de Baloncesto.
Segura, R. (2003). Over-training. XIV Medical Conferences of the Spanish Association of Basketball.

C. Javierre, J.R. Barbany, V.M. Bonjorn, A.A. Lizarraga, J.L. Ventura and R. Segura
Creatine supplementation and perfonnance in 6 consecutives 60 meter sprints.
J. Physiol. Biochem. 2004 Q : 265-272

R. Segura
Acidos grasos omega-3 en la promoción de la salud y la prevención de las enfermedades del
sistema cardiovascular. Fundació Institut Guttmann, 2004, 6-10

Garrido E, Javierre C, Segura R, Ventura JL.
Sherpas.
NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC, 2004; 14: (forum).
C. Javierre, J. Vidal, R. Segura, J. Medina and E. Garrido
Continual supplementation with n-3 fatty acids does not modify plasma lipid profile in spinal
cord injury patients. Spinal Cord, 2005 .A : 1-4

Javierre C, García A, Alegre J, Morales A, Garrido E, Soriano T, Segura R.
Respuestas fisiológicas en el ejercicio con brazos y piernas en pacientes diagnosticados de síndrome de fatiga crónica.
REVISTA CLÍNICA ESPAÑOLA, 2005; 21: 293-294.

C. Javierre. J. Vidal. R. Segura, M.A. Lizarraga. J. Medina and J.L. Ventura
Supplementation with n-3 Fatty Acids (DHA and EPA) and Physical Perfonnance in Spinal Cord
injured Patients. Spinal Cord ,2006 (en procés d'avaluació pel comité editorial)
Suárez A, Javierre C, Ventura JL, Garrido E, Barbany JR, Segura R.
Diferencias interindividuales en las concentraciones de cortisol plasmático tras una hora de ejercicio mixto aeróbico-anaeróbico.
APUNTES DE MEDICINA DEL DEPORTE, 2007; 153: 7-12.

Javierre C, Vidal J, Segura R, Lizarraga MA, Medina J, Ventura JL. (2006). The effect of supplementation with n-3 fatty acids on the physical performance in subjects with spinal cord injury. J Physiol Biochem. Dec;62(4):271-9.

Segura, R. (2008).

Entrevista sobre Alimentación y Tecnología  (pdf)
TECA (Asociación Catalana de Ciencias de la Alimentación), núm 13 (diciembre 2008), p- 46-48
Interview on Nutrition and Technology

Segura R, Javierre C, Lizarraga MA, Ros E. (2006). "Other relevant components of nuts: phytosterols, folate and minerals". Br J Nutr Nov;96 Suppl 2:S36-44. Erratum in: Br J Nutr. 2008 Feb;99(2):447-8.

Viscor G, Javierre C, Pagès T, Ventura JL, Ricart A, Martin-Henao G, Azqueta C, Segura R. (2009).  "Combined intermittent hypoxia and surface muscle electrostimulation as a method to increase peripheral blood progenitor cell concentration".  
J Transl Med Oct 29;7:91.

R. Segura, C. Javierre and M.A. Lizarraga
Other important components: Phystosterons, fosfates and minerals.
"Nuts and health". (Revisió sobre el paper dels fruits secs en la salut). Brit. J. Nutr. (publicació prevista pel 2006)
International Physical Activity Questionnaire Reliability and validity in a Spanish population
European Journal of Sport Science, Volume 10, Issue 5 September 2010 , pages 297 - 304

Andrea Suarez, Elisabet Guillamo, Teresa Roig, Alicia Blazquez, Jose Alegre, Jordi Bermudez, Josep Lluis Ventura, Ana Maria Garcia-Quintana, Agusti Comella, Ramon Segura, and Casimiro Javierre (2010). Nitric Oxide Metabolite Production During Exercise in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Case-Control Study. 
JOURNAL OF WOMEN'S HEALTH Volume 19, Number 6.
 
Javierre C, Segura R, Ventura JL, Suárez A, Rosés JM. (2010). L-tryptophan supplementation can decrease fatigue perception during an aerobic exercise with supramaximal intercalated anaerobic bouts in young healthy men". 
Int J Neurosci May;120 (5):319-27.

International Physical Activity Questionnaire Reliability and validity in a Spanish population
European Journal of Sport Science, Volume 10, Issue 5 September 2010 , pages 297 - 304
Cuestionario Internacional sobre Actividad Física. Fiabilidad y Validez en la población española.

Segura, R. (2011).
Entrevista al Dr. Ramon Segura Cardona sobre Nutrición Deportiva y Salud (htm)
Paulina Savall realiza una entrevista de actualidad al Dr. Ramon Segura Cardona,
al ser considerado uno de los mejores expertos internacionales en fisiología del ejercicio y nutrición deportiva.
Interview about Sport Nutrition and Health

Segura, R. (2011).
Optimización Energética (pdf)
Energy Optimization (pdf)

Dossier Ergogain · Optimización Energética · Septiembre 2013
Dossier Ergogain · Energy Optimization · September 2013

 

Artículos de Divulgación Científica

R. Segura
Alimentación y salud.
La Vanguardia, 25 de Maig de 1986

R. Segura
Ejercicio físico y fatiga.
La Vanguardia, 14 de juny de 1987

R. Segura
La dieta del deportista.
Salud, 1988

R. Segura
Ejercicio fisico y fatiga.
Jan, 1989 : 39-82

R. Segura
Enfermedades del sistema cardiovascular.
Informativo -Caixa, 1989 : 30-33

R. Segura
Cómo vivir sin comer menos.
Medicina y calidad de vida (La Vanguardia), 1990 11: 10

R. Segura
La regulación térmica durante el ejercicio físico.
Medicina y calidad de vida (La Vanguardia), 1991 : 10-11

R. Segura
Agua, sudor y lágrimas.
Medicina y calidad de vida (La Vanguardia), 1991 M: 10-11

R. Segura
Nutrición y salud en nuestro días.
Ibérica, 1991 .MQ: 115-122

R. Segura
Dieta y grasas, una historia de amor y odio.
Medicina y calidad de vida (La Vanguardia), 1991 : 9-10

R. Segura
Gasto calórico y ejercicio físico.
Medicina y calidad de vida (la Vanguardia), 1991 34: 10-11

R. Segura
El colesterol.
Gente sana, 1992 : 6-10.

R. Segura
Hidratos de carbono y rendimiento deportivo.
News -OTC, 1992 : 7-13

R. Segura
El yodo y la salud.
Sal y salud, 1998 ~: 5-6

R. Segura
Los ácidos grasos omega-3 en la promoción de la salud y la prevención de la enfermedad.
Medic Delfos, 1999 : 39-48 (n° 1) i 31-41 (n° 2)

R. Segura
Cómo alimentarse mejor: 25 alimentos más sanos.
Vivir feliz 1999 .1Q: 42-46

R. Segura
Ácidos grasos Omega-3 y salud.
Spin Nutr., 1999 : 2-5

R. Segura
Magnesia
Sal y salud, 2002 : 8

c. Javierre, R. Segura
La hidrataci6n y el rendimiento deportivo.
Esports i Natura, 2002 : 54

E. Garrido, C. Javierre, R. Segura, J.L. Ventura
Sherpas, Nacional Geographic, 2004

Segura, R. (2003).
Sobre-Entrenamiento.
XIV Jornadas Médicas de la Asociación Española de Baloncesto.
Segura, R. (2003). Over-training. XIV Medical Conferences of the Spanish Association of Basketball. 

Segura, R. (2012).
Nuts and Physical Performance · Reflections from the Chair of Physiology on the Best Soccer Team Ever
The Cracker / July 2012
Segura, R. (2012). Frutos Secos y Rendimiento Físico. Reflexiones del Jefe de Fisiología del Mejor Equipo de Fútbol de la Historia.

Segura, R. (2014).
Nutrición y Rendimiento Deportivo · Entrevista (pdf)
Nutrition and Sport Performance · Interview (pdf)
El boletín verde. Santiveri, nutrición y vida. nº 7, Mayo 2014.

 

 

 

------------------------------------

ALGUNOS VIDEOS DE SUS PONENCIAS 2018

a) Nutrición y Deportes · Bases científicas para la optimización del rendimiento físico:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=07sgJrMZXNA
b) Los "calambres" musculares:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ci9yTWzLhtI&t=14s
 

 

 

------------------------------------

SELECCIÓN DE ABSTRACTS I DOCS DE ARTÍCULOS CIENTÍFICOS

Rationnelle La maladie de Behçet est une vascularite auto-immune et systémique caractérisée par des ulcérations aphteuses et génitales orales et des lésions oculaires. Les manifestations vasculaires sous forme d’anévrysmes sont les facteurs prédictifs principaux de la mortalité et de la morbidité. Normalement, ces anévrysmes sont situés dans les artères pulmonaires, l’aorte, la carotide, la sous-clavière, et l’étage fémoro-poplité. La chirurgie ouverte présente un taux de complication maximum de 50%, principalement sous forme de faux anévrysmes anastomotiques. Méthodes Nous rapportons le cas d’un homme de 41 ans chez qui était diagnostiquée une maladie de Behçet depuis 3 ans, et qui s’est présenté aux urgences après dix jours de douleurs et d’un oedème jambier droit, sans la moindre notion de traumatisme. Résultats Une première exploration vasculaire montrait une masse pulsatile sous-poplitée sans pouls tibial postérieur droit. Le reste de l’exploration ne montrait aucune anomalie. Un Doppler montrait un faux anévrysme sous-poplité rompu. Une artériographie poplitée sélective était faite par voie fémorale controlatérale, et un faux anévrysme tibio-péronier rompu était embolisé avec trois coils métalliques de 5 mm (Cook). Le patient était libéré après 4 jours et est resté asymptomatique pendant les 2 années suivantes. Conclusions Les anévrysmes des artères distales dans la maladie de Behçet sont très peu fréquents et chaque cas devrait être évalué sur une base individuelle. Le traitement endovasculaire est une bonne alternative thérapeutique.
Behçet's disease is an autoimmune, systemic vasculitis disease that is characterized by oral aphthous and genital ulcerations and ocular lesions. Vascular manifestations in the form of aneurysms are the main predictors of mortality and morbidity in such cases. Normally, these aneurysms are located in the pulmonary arteries, the aorta, carotid, subclavia, and the femoropopliteal sector. Open surgery presents a maximum complication rate of 50%, principally in the form of anastomotic pseudoaneurysms. We report the case of a 41-year-old man who was diagnosed with Behçet's disease 3 years before, and attended the emergency department after a 10-day history of pain and an infragenicular swelling edema in the right limb, without any previous record of trauma. An initial vascular exploration revealed a pusatile mass in the infrapopliteal region and absence of the posterior tibial pulse in the right limb. The rest of the exploration did not reveal any alterations. A Doppler ultrasound scan showed a ruptured infrapopliteal pseudoaneurysm. An emergency, selective arteriography of the popliteal artery was performed by using a contralateral femoral access approach, and a ruptured tibioperoneal pseudoaneurysm was embolized with three 5-mm metallic coils (Cook). The patient was discharged after 4 days and in the 2 years since then has remained asymptomatic. Aneurysms of the distal vessels in Behçet's disease are very infrequent and each case should be evaluated on an individual basis. Endovascular treatment is a good therapeutic alternative.
Els àcids grassos omega-3 pertanyen a la categoria dels àcids grassos poliinsaturats i no poden ser sintetitzats pel nostre organisme, la qual cosa determina el seu caràcter d'essencials per a la salut i que sigui imprescindible el fet d'ingerir-los amb la dieta. Aquests tipus de compostos participen en una sèrie de processos implicats en el normal funcionament de diversos sistemes corporals i, així, afecten el nivell de salut de l'individu i condicionen, en part, el risc de patir diversos tipus de patologies. L'àcid eicosapentaenoic i l'àcid docosahexaenoic exerceixen una sèrie d'efectes sobre diferents paràmetres fisiològics que poden afectar el desenvolupament del procés arterioscleròtic, responsable majoritari de la malaltia isquèmica miocardíaca: disminueixen els nivells de triglicèrids del plasma (tant en dejú com durant el període postprandial), redueixen l'agregació plaquetària i el risc de trombosi, moderen la dinàmica dels processos implicats en les reaccions inflamatòries (implicades en el desenvolupament de les plaques d'aterosclerosi), redueixen el risc de presentar arítmia ventricular i de mort sobtada, etc. Nombrosos treballs de tipus experimental i diversos estudis de caràcter epidemiològic suggereixen que els àcids grassos de tipus omega-3 poden tenir efectes beneficiosos sobre les malalties de naturalesa cancerosa: redueixen el desenvolupament metastàtic i el creixement tumoral en inhibir el grau de mitosi de les cèl·lules canceroses, en accelerar la seva mort per apoptosi, en induir la diferenciació cel·lular, en inhibir l'angiogènesi, en alterar el metabolisme dels estrògens, etc. Els àcids grassos de tipus omega-3 són essencials per assolir l'adequada estructura i el normal funcionament del sistema nerviós. Estudis de caràcter epidemiològic posen de manifest l'existència d'una associació positiva entre la ingesta de peix ric en àcids grassos eicosapentaenoics i docosahexaenoics (verat, sardina, tonyina, etc.) durant l'embaràs i un millor desenvolupament del fetus i la millora en diversos aspectes de la percepció sensorial i la capacitat psicofuncional: una millor percepció i atenció envers les coses noves en el reconeixement visual (en el nadó) i una millor puntuació en les escales de valoració de la intel·ligència verbal i en el comportament personal (en els infants i adolescents), al mateix temps que milloren el desenvolupament motor i el de la massa òssia. Aquests tipus de compostos desenvolupen un paper important en la higiene mental i influeixen sobre diversos processos relacionats amb alguns tipus de malalties mentals: la depressió estacional, postpart), el trastorn bipolar (depressió, mania), els dèficits d'atenció, les síndromes d'hiperactivitat, etc. Els àcids grassos de tipus omega-3 afecten també el funcionament del sistema immunitari i determinen que la reactivitat i el grau d'agressivitat de la resposta inflamatòria induïda per aquest sistema siguin més moderats i tinguin una menor afectació clínica i funcional. La simptomatologia clínica de diverses malalties en les quals el sistema immunitari desenvolupa un paper important (artritis reumatoide, asma bronquial, psoriasi, etc.) millora de manera significativa quan els malalts ingereixen quantitats adequades, i relativament altes, d'àcids grassos omega-3.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome is an illness of unknown aetiology that has been associated with abnormalities in essential fatty acid metabolism, however this still remains unclear. We have compared the fatty acid profile in plasma and red blood cells and their dietary intake between a group of 20 patients diagnosed with CFS (18 women and 2 men) and 20 aged- sex- diet- low activity- matched controls. Compared to the controls, CFS patients show a decrease in the proportion of linoleic acid (t: 2.137, p: 0.039) and an increase in that of stearic acid (t: 2.602, p: 0.013) in plasma, however such differences have not been observed in the fatty acid profile of red blood cells. In these cases, no direct relationship has been observed between the dietary intake and fatty acid profile. Therefore, these results do not give support that long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids may contribute in the better course of the pathology.
 
 
 
Although questionnaires are useful for evaluating patterns of physical activity in populations, they need to be validated. The objective of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) in a Spanish population. The participants wore a uniaxial MTI Actigraph (Computer Science and Application, Inc.) accelerometer for 7 days and self-completed the IPAQ questionnaire twice, to assess its reliability. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing data from the IPAQ and data from the MTI. The final sample included 54 adults for the validity analysis and 66 adults for the reliability analysis. The correlations (r) between the IPAQ and the accelerometer were 0.29 (P
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disabling illness of unknown etiology that is characterized by fatigue associated with a reduced ability to work, lasting for more than 6 months, and accompanied by a specific set of symptoms. The diagnosis remains difficult because of the absence of laboratory tests and is, therefore, made largely on the basis of the symptoms reported by the patient. The aim of this study was to analyze differences in blood nitrate levels in CFS patients and a matched control group after a physical exercise test. Forty-four consecutive female patients with CFS and 25 healthy women performed an exercise test using a cycle ergometer with monitoring of cardiopulmonary response. Blood samples were obtained for biochemical analyses of glucose, lactate, and nitrates at the beginning (under resting conditions) and after the maximal and supramaximal tests. Plasma nitrates differed between the groups, with higher values in the CFS group (F = 6.93, p = 0.003). Nitrate concentration increased in relation to workload and reached higher values in the CFS group, the maximum difference with respect to the control group being 295% (t = 4.88, p < 0.001). The main result of the present study is that nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (nitrates) showed a much higher increase after a maximal physical test in CFS patients than in a group of matched subjects. This combination (exercise plus NO response evaluation) may be useful in the assessment of CFS.
 
 
Physical exercise is often terminated not due to muscle fatigue but because of inadequate neural drive in the serotonergic system. Modifications in activity levels of the serotonergic system, induced by variations in the availability of L-tryptophan (a serotonin precursor) may alter neural drive. We examined the effect of L-tryptophan supplementation on physical performance by combining aerobic work with brief periods of supramaximal intensity that closely mimics the activity typical of team sports. Twenty healthy young sportsmen (mean age 21.2 +/- 0.7 years) performed a submaximal exercise on a cycle ergometer, with a workload corresponding to 50% of their respective VO(2) max for 10 min, followed by a maximal intensity exercise for 30 s. This sequence was repeated three times and, after the fourth series, each participant continued to exercise at the highest speed that he could sustain for 20 min. This protocol was performed twice: once with and finally without supplementation of L-tryptophan, in random order and double-blind. Peak power output, average anaerobic power output, and power output during the last 20 min of the trial were higher on the trials performed with L-tryptophan supplementation than on those performed with placebo. The distance covered during the last 20 min of the trial was 11,959 +/- 1,753 m on placebo and 12,526 +/- 1,617 m on L-tryptophan (p < .05). In conclusion, in some types of exercises, modification of the serotonergic system may improve the physical performance.
 
 
 
 
Our goal was to determine whether short-term intermittent hypoxia exposure, at a level well tolerated by healthy humans and previously shown by our group to increase EPO and erythropoiesis, could mobilize hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and increase their presence in peripheral circulation. Four healthy male subjects were subjected to three different protocols: one with only a hypoxic stimulus (OH), another with a hypoxic stimulus plus muscle electrostimulation (HME) and the third with only muscle electrostimulation (OME). Intermittent hypobaric hypoxia exposure consisted of only three sessions of three hours at barometric pressure 540 hPa (equivalent to an altitude of 5000 m) for three consecutive days, whereas muscular electrostimulation was performed in two separate periods of 25 min in each session. Blood samples were obtained from an antecubital vein on three consecutive days immediately before the experiment and 24 h, 48 h, 4 days and 7 days after the last day of hypoxic exposure. There was a clear increase in the number of circulating CD34+ cells after combined hypobaric hypoxia and muscular electrostimulation. This response was not observed after the isolated application of the same stimuli. Our results open a new application field for hypobaric systems as a way to increase efficiency in peripheral HSC collection.
GV and CJ during HME protocol. The intensity of muscle electrostimulation can be observed in this short movie.
CHEx-1 Hypobaric chamber. The hypobaric chamber into BioPol facility at University of Barcelona Campus Bellvitge.
The aim of the study presented here was to determine the relationship between age and certain socioeconomic factors and the effect that physical activity may have on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Spanish children and adolescents. The sample derived from the enKid study, a cross-sectional study of a representative sample of the Spanish population aged 2-24 years. Body mass index was calculated from measured weight and height. A physical activity questionnaire was administered. Age, socioeconomic level of the families, the mother's level of education, and the geographical area of residence were related to the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Spanish males.
Viscor, Gines Javierre, Casimiro Pages, Teresa Ventura, Josep-Lluis Ricart, Antoni Martin-Henao, Gregorio Azqueta, Carmen Segura, Ramon
Introducción y objetivos: En el macizo del Garraf (Barcelona) las simas tienen una atmósfera con disminución de oxígeno y aumento de CO2 respecto a la normalidad. Para valorar el nivel de riesgo en la exploración de estas cavidades estudiamos a 19 espeleólogos (14 hombres y 5 mujeres) al realizar un ejercicio controlado, en una atmósfera hipercápnica, hipóxica y normobárica (15,2 ± 0,8% de O2 y 19.049 ± 299 ppmv de CO2). Métodos: El estudio se realizó en laboratorio mediante ergometría. Se realizaron 2 tests, uno en atmósfera normal (NN) y otro idéntico realizado en ambiente confinado (tienda de hipoxia), con aire enrarecido (HH). Se monitorizaron los siguientes parámetros: electrocardiograma, frecuencia cardíaca, saturación de oxígeno de la hemoglobina, lactato, glucemia capilar y presión arterial final. Resultados: Los voluntarios presentaron diferente sintomatología durante la prueba con aire enrarecido: sensación de calor (100%), mareo (47%), cefalea (3%), prurito ocular (21%), temblor en las manos (16%), extrasístoles (16,5%), respuesta hipertónica de la presión arterial (26%), taquicardia (158,5 ± 15,9 latidos/min en aire enrarecido frente a 148,7 ± 15,7 latidos/min en aire normal; p < 0,0002). Todos presentaron una disminución de la saturación de oxígeno (93,4 ± 3,4% en aire enrarecido frente a 97,7 ± 9,92% en aire normal; p < 0,00004). Discusión: Se observó una gran variabilidad individual en los síntomas y parámetros estudiados. En vista de los resultados, se recomienda no sobrepasar el umbral de 45.000 ppmv de CO2 en exploración espeleológica. Asimismo es conveniente una revisión médica de aptitud
Introduction and aims: The atmosphere in the abysses of the mountains of Garraf (Barcelona) have lower oxygen levels and higher CO2 concentrations with respect to normality. To evaluate the risk of speleological exploration in this area, we studied 19 cavers (14 men and 5 women) while performing controlled exercise in a hypercapnic, hypoxic and normobaric atmosphere (15.2 ± 0.8% of 299 O2 and 19,049 ± 299 ppmv of CO2). Methods: The study was performed in a laboratory through ergometry. Two identical tests were used: one in a standard atmosphere (NN) and another in a confined atmosphere (a hypoxic tent), with rarefied air (HH). The following parameters were monitored: electrocardiogram, heart rate, oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, lactate, capillary glycemia, and final blood pressure. Results: The volunteers had distinct symptoms during the test with rarefied air: heat sensation (100%), dizziness (47%), headache (3%), ocular pruritus (21%), hand tremor (16%), extrasystoles (16.5%), hypertonic blood pressure behavior (26%), tachycardia (158.5 ± 15.9 bpm in rarefied air versus 148.7 ± 15.7 bpm in normal air; p<0.0002). All participants showed reduced oxygen saturation (93.4 ± 3.4% in rarefied air versus 97.7 ± 9.92% in normal air; p<0.00004). Discussion: Wide individual variability was found in symptoms and the parameters studied. In view of the results of this study, we recommend that a threshold of 45,000 ppmv of CO 2 not be exceeded in speleological exploration. Likewise, fitness assessment should be performed in individuals planning to enter confined atmospheres, such as the caves and abysses of this mountain.
 
 
 
The purpose of this study was to investigate if the concentration of lactate can provide additional information for pathologies that need examination of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in their diagnostic controls or protocols. A prospective study carried out in the year 2001 at the University Hospital of Bellvitge (Barcelona), on 92 samples of CSF from patients who needed this examination. The concentration of lactate, glucose, and the cell count was determined. One year later, the diagnosis revealed from the previous analyzed samples were sorted into groups according to the diagnosis. In the group with multiple sclerosis (MS) (n = 30), there was a significant decrease in lactate concentration (1.52 +/- 0.19 mmol/L) compared to the control group (1.89 +/- 0.11 mmol/L) (p < 0.001). The glucose concentration remained within the normal range and the cell count was < 4 cell/microL even in the relapses. In the early stages of MS, the lactate concentration in CSF is decreased and this could be related to alterations in sensitivity observed in those patients. Further studies are needed to evaluate if this lactate concentration is a prognostic indicator of the disease.
Introduction and aims: The atmosphere in the abysses of the mountains of Garraf (Barcelona) have lower oxygen levels and higher CO2 concentrations with respect to normality. To evaluate the risk of speleological exploration in this area, we studied 19 cavers (14 men and 5 women) while performing controlled exercise in a hypercapnic, hypoxic and normobaric atmosphere (15.2 ± 0.8% of 299 O2 and 19,049 ± 299 ppmv of CO2). Methods: The study was performed in a laboratory through ergometry. Two identical tests were used: one in a standard atmosphere (NN) and another in a confined atmosphere (a hypoxic tent), with rarefied air (HH). The following parameters were monitored: electrocardiogram, heart rate, oxygen saturation of hemoglobin, lactate, capillary glycemia, and final blood pressure. Results: The volunteers had distinct symptoms during the test with rarefied air: heat sensation (100%), dizziness (47%), headache (3%), ocular pruritus (21%), hand tremor (16%), extrasystoles (16.5%), hypertonic blood pressure behavior (26%), tachycardia (158.5 ± 15.9 bpm in rarefied air versus 148.7 ± 15.7 bpm in normal air; p<0.0002).All participants showed reduced oxygen saturation (93.4 ± 3.4% in rarefied air versus 97.7 ± 9.92% in normal air; p<0.00004). Discussion: Wide individual variability was found in symptoms and the parameters studied. In view of the results of this study, we recommend that a threshold of 45,000 ppmv of CO2 not be exceeded in speleological exploration. Likewise, fitness assessment should be performed in individuals planning to enter confined atmospheres, such as the caves and abysses of this mountain.
Introducció i objectius: En el massís del Garraf (Barcelona) els avencs tenen una atmosfera amb disminució d'oxigen i augment de CO2 respecte a la normalitat. Per valorar el nivell de risc en l'exploració d'aquestes cavitats varem estudiar a 19 espeleòlegs (14 homes i 5 dones) en realitzar un exercici controlat, en una atmosfera hipercàpnica, hipòxica i normobàrica (15,2 ± 0,8% d'O2 i 19.049 ± 299 ppmv de CO2). Mètodes: L'estudi es va realitzar en laboratori, mitjançant ergometria. Es van realitzar 2 tests, un en atmosfera normal (NN) i un altre idèntic realitzat en ambient confinat (tenda d'hipòxia), amb l'aire enrarit (HH). Es van monitorar els següents paràmetres: electrocardiograma, freqüència cardíaca, saturació d'oxigen de l'hemoglobina, lactat, glucèmia capil·lar i pressió arterial final. Resultats: Els voluntaris van presentar diferent simptomatologia durant la prova amb aire enrarit: Sensació de calor (100%), mareig (47%), cefalea (3%), pruïja ocular (21%), tremolor a les mans (16%), extrasístoles (16,5%), resposta hipertònica de la pressió arterial (26%), taquicàrdia (158,5 ± 159 batecs/min en aire enrarit enfront de 148,7 ± 15,7 batecs/min en aire normal; p < 0,0002). Tots van presentar una disminució de la saturació d'oxigen (93,4 ± 3,4% en aire enrarit enfront de 97,7 ± 9,92% en aire normal; p < 0,00004). Discussió: Es va observar una gran variabilitat individual en els símptomes i paràmetres estudiats. En vista dels resultats, es recomana no sobrepassar el llindar de 45.000 ppmv de CO2, en exploració espeleològica. Així mateix és convenient una revisió mèdica d'aptitud abans d'internar-se en atmosferes confinades, com són els avencs i coves del mencionat massís.
Introducción y objetivos: El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar las diferencias en la concentración plasmática de cortisol tras la realización de un esfuerzo mixto, aeróbicoanaeróbico, en un grupo de jóvenes físicamente activos. Métodos: Catorce voluntarios realizaron, en un cicloergómetro, 40 min de ejercicio a la intensidad correspondiente al 50% del pico individual de consumo de oxígeno, manteniendo el ritmo de pedaleo a 60 revoluciones/min. Durante el mismo, se intercalaron 4 fases de 30 s con una carga de 0,04 kg por kilo de masa corporal en los minutos 10, 20, 30 y 40. Tras estos primeros minutos, pedaleaban durante 20 min a la máxima velocidad posible frente a una carga constante correspondiente al 50% del consumo de oxígeno. Se controlaron los parámetros cardiorrespiratorios y se recogieron muestras sanguíneas al inicio de la prueba, cada 10 min durante el ejercicio y a los 15 min de la recuperación. Resultados: Las respuestas cardiopulmonar y metabólica fueron muy homogéneas, con un aumento de los valores de cortisol a lo largo de la prueba (F = 5,16; p < 0,001) que presentó diferencias entre los sujetos (F = 6,74; p < 0,001). En 8 participantes (57,1% de la muestra) se observó un aumento, y en 6 (42,9%) los cambios fueron pequeños con respecto a los valores previos al inicio de la prueba. Conclusión: A pesar de haber evaluado un grupo homogéneo, se observaron diferencias interindividuales en la concentración plasmática de cortisol tras la realización de un esfuerzo mixto, lo que puede tener implicaciones en la adaptación provocada por el ejercicio.
The author reports a series of 5 patients with deep venous thrombosis extended to the inferior vena cava as a floating thrombus, who underwent a venous thrombectomy, with excellent early and long-term results. The fundamentals of this therapeutic option, the diagnosis and the surgical indications are presented and discussed.
Patients affected by chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) characteristically show easy and unexplained fatigue after minimal exertion that does not resolve with rest and is associated with specific symptoms lasting for more than six months. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing is a valid procedure for determining functional capacity in patients with CFS. We compare cardioventilatory adaptation to exercise between a group of eighty-five consecutive women patients affected by CFS and a group of fifteen healthy women extremely sedentary individuals, with the use of maximum incremental exercise testing on a cycle ergometer and arm ergometer, assessing possible differences. The majority of values achieved at peak exhaustive exercise were significantly lower in CFS patients than controls, including the percentage of maximum oxygen uptake in arm physical test (37.4±10.0% in CFS vs. 58.9± 15.8% in controls) and leg physical test (53.4±15.0% in CFS patients vs. 76.2 ± 18.0% in controls). In conclusion, the CFS group shows a lower work capacity in arm or leg exercise that would not be justified exclusively by their personal characteristics or deconditioning.
 
 
 
 
Introduction and objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate differences in plasma cortisol concentration in response to an intercalating aerobic-anaerobic exercise test in a group of physically active young people. Methods: Fourteen healthy young male volunteers performed a 40-minute exercise test at 50% of individual peak oxygen uptake on a cycle ergometer, maintaining a pedal rate of 60 r.p.m., during which they aimed to intercalate 4 explosive anaerobic phases of 30 seconds with a workload of 0.04 kg per kg of body mass at 10, 20, 30 and 40 minutes. After this first phase, and without stopping the exercise and maintaining the corresponding workload of 50% of peak oxygen uptake, the volunteers ended the exercise by pedaling at the maximum number of revolutions possible for 20 minutes. Cardiopulmonary parameters were continuously monitored and blood samples were obtained at rest, every 10 minutes during the test, and at 15 minutes during the recovery period. Results: Cardiopulmonary and metabolic responses were similar in all the participants during the test and the group tendency was to increase plasma cortisol levels significantly throughout the test (F = 5.16; p < 0.001). Plasma cortisol levels showed large interindividual differences (F = 6.74; p < 0.001). In 8 participants (57.1%), plasma cortisol levels increased during exercise and while in 6 (42.9%) minor changes with respect to resting values were observed. Conclusion: Substantial differences in plasma cortisol levels were found in a homogeneous group of young male volunteers during a successive aerobic-anaerobic exercise test, which may have implications in adaptation to exercise.
In the 1970s, several researchers were very much impressed by the low prevalence of ischemic heart disease among the inuit (eskimos) of Greenland despite following a diet rich in animal fat and protein, as well as in cholesterol. A detailed analysis of the diet showed that the inuit were eating greater quantities of fatty fish and marine animals which are specially rich in long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of the omega-3 type. Since these initial observations, it has been shown that the omega-3 fatty acids are involved in a great number of processes that, practically, have an influence on all body systems, from the cardiovascular to the nervous system, from the renal function to that of the digestive system, from the immune system to inflammation, etc. In the first part of this review, an analysis of the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on several risk factors for the cardiovascular system is made. Special attention is devoted on the effects of these type of fatty acids on the plasma triglyceride levels, both in fasting and in post-prandial situations, and their more plausible mechanism of action; at the same time, their impact on the levels and characteristics of the low density lipoproteins is discussed. This is followed by a detailed description of the possible beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on blood pressure. The protective role of omega-3 fatty acids on the prothrombotic and pro-inflamatory processes is reviewed evaluating the effects of these fatty acids on the balance between prothrombotic and anti-thrombotic eicosanoids. Omega-3 fatty acids, as components of cellular membranes, modulate the expression of several glycoproteins, located on the luminal surface of the endothelial cells, that determine the extent of adhesion and penetration of monocytes; at the same time, they influence the migration and proliferation of smooth muscle cells from the muscular layer to the subendothelial space. Both processes, fundamental in the development of the atherosclerotic plaque, are markedly attenuated by the omega-3 fatty acids. In the second part of this review, the influence of these fatty acids on processes related to obesity, the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, chronic inflammatory conditions, the development and function of the nervous system, the mental and affective status of the individual, etc., will be analyzed.
Introducció i objectius: L’objectiu de l’estudi va ser avaluar les diferències en la concentració plasmàtica de cortisol després de la realització d’un esforç mixt, aeròbic-anaeròbic, en un grup de joves físicament actius. Mètodes: Catorze voluntaris van fer, en un cicloergòmetre, 40 min d’exercici a la intensitat corresponent al 50% del consum màxim d’oxigen, mantenint el ritme de pedalada a 60 revolucions/min. I s’hi van intercalar 4 fases de 30 s amb una càrrega de 0,04 kg per quilo de massa corporal, en els minuts 10, 20, 30 i 40. Després d’aquests primers minuts, pedalaven durant 20 min a la màxima velocitat possible per una càrrega constant corresponent al 50% del consum màxim d’oxigen. Se’n van monitoritzar els paràmetres cardiorespiratoris, i se’n recolliren mostres sanguínies a l’inici de la prova, cada 10 min durant l’exercici i als 15 min de la recuperació. Resultats: Les respostes cardiopulmonar i metabòlica van ser molt homogènies, amb un augment dels valors de cortisol durant la prova (F = 5,16; p < 0,001), que van presentar diferències entre els subjectes (F = 6,74; p < 0,001). En 8 participants (57,1% de la mostra) es va observar un augment, i en 6 (42,9% de la mostra) els canvis van ser petits respecte dels valors previs a l’inici de la prova. Conclusió: Malgrat ser avaluat un grup homogeni, es van observar diferències interindividuals en la concentració plasmàtica de cortisol després de la realització d’un esforç mixt, que poden tenir implicacions en l’adaptació provocada per l’exercici.
A global physical evaluation was performed in 21 males with spinal cord injury (SCI), at the beginning and at three and six months of omega-3 fatty acid (FA) supplementation. A significant increase in the proportion of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexanoic acid in plasma was observed in response to the supplementation (p<0.05). After six months of FA supplementation, strength endurance time increased from 127.7+/-19.0 s to 215.2+/-45.6 s in the right arm, and from 139+/-27.6 s to 237.7+/-48.7 s, in the left arm. The time to perform 20 repetitions of 70% maximum workload showed a reduction of 41% between the first and the third test. The time taken to cover a 90 meter long track, with a 6% slope, was reduced from 66.9+/-8.0 s to 59.3+/-6.7 s, at the end of the study (p<0.05). In conclusion, omega-3 FA supplementation could contribute to improve the functional capabilities in SCI subjects.
 
 
 
Nuts contain significant amounts of essential micronutrients that are associated with an improved health status when consumed at doses beyond those necessary to prevent deficiency states. Nuts do not contain cholesterol, but they are rich in chemically related phytosterols, a class of compounds that interfere with intestinal cholesterol absorption and thus help lower blood cholesterol. Nuts also contain folate, a B-vitamin necessary for normal cellular function that plays an important role in detoxifying homocysteine, a sulphur-containing amino acid with atherothrombotic properties that accumulates in plasma when folate status is subnormal. Compared to other common foodstuffs, nuts have an optimal nutritional density with respect to healthy minerals, such as calcium, magnesium and potassium. Like that of most vegetables, the sodium content of nuts is very low. A high intake of calcium, magnesium and potassium, together with a low sodium intake, is associated with protection against bone demineralisation, arterial hypertension, insulin resistance, and overall cardiovascular risk. Phytosterols might justify part of the cholesterol-lowering effect of nut intake beyond that attributable to fatty acid exchange, while the mineral richness of nuts probably contributes to the prevention of diabetes and coronary heart disease observed in epidemiological studies in association with frequent nut consumption.
Purpose: To compare the response to physical exercise between subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) and able-bodied (AB) subjects with the objective of developing a new formula for the indirect calculation of oxygen consumption (VO2). Subjects: 20 individuals with paraplegia below Th6 and 22 AB subjects have participated in the study. Measures: A graded work test was performed on an arm ergometer, starting with 10 w and increasing the power in 10 w each minute up to maximal effort. SCI group present a lower response to the different workloads with respect to the AB group. Results: In the SCI group, a statistical association was found between workload and VO2 (r = 0.956, P < 0.001). The proposed equation to calculate the theoretical VO 2 was the following: 0.487 + (0.013·watts performed). Conclusions: SCI males, respect to AB subjects, show differences in ventilatory response to exercises. We propose a new formula for the indirect calculation of VO2 in relation to workload.
Creatine is an ergogenic aid used in individual and team sports. The aim of this study is to analyze the effect of monohydrate creatine supplementation on physical performance during 6 consecutive maximal speed 60 meter races, and the changes induced in some characteristic biochemical and ventilatory parameters. The study was carried out on nineteen healthy and physically active male volunteers, and randomly distributed into two groups: Group C received a supplement of creatine monohydrate (20 g/day for 5 days) and group P received placebo. Tests were performed before and after supplementation. No significant changes were observed in weight or body water measured by bioimpedance or the sum of 7 skinfold or performance during the 60 meter races. Group C showed a statistically significant increase in plasma creatinine from 69.8 +/- 12.4 to 89.3 +/- 12.4 micromol x L(-1) (p<0.05). In group C in the second control day (after creatine supplementation), expiratory volume V(E), O2 uptake and CO2 production were lower after 2 minutes of active recovery period. These results indicate that creatine monohydrate supplementation does not appear to improve the performance in 6 consecutive 60 meter repeated races but may modify ventilatory dynamics during the recovery after maximal effort.
El fumar cigarretes, a un ritme habitual i sense evitar el seu consum les hores prèvies a l’activitat física, pot comprometre de forma significativa els mecanismes termoreguladors de pèrdua de calor i provocar una resposta hemodinàmica anormal durant l’exercici. L’associació de tabac i activitat física d’alta intensitat pot fer augmentar la temperatura central al pertorbar els mecanismes de pèrdua de calor mitjançant la redistribució del flux vascular cutani. A més, durant exercicis perllongats com els exercicis de resistència, i en ambients alorosos, el consum de cigarretes pot actuar com a factor limitant en el rendiment esportiu, i incrementar el risc d’hipertèrmia.
The number of patients that suffer some type of spinal cord lesion in recent years are high and have increased because of factors such as traffic accidents. Although their life expectancy has increased, cardiovascular illnesses is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality. Since the degree of physical fitness is an important factor regarding the risk of cardiovascular disease, the objective of the present study was to examine the global adaptation (cardiorespiratory, metabolic and thermoregulatory response) of the organism to exercise and the application of this data to the habitual practice of physical activity to improve state of health. A group of 42 patients with spinal injury, 85% of whom were paraplegic and the remaining 15% tetraplegic performed 42 exercise tests on a cycloergometer. Body temperature (tympanum, surface of the deltoids and surface of the back), metabolic parameters (plasma uric acid, glycemia, plasma lactate), cardiocirculatory adaptation (heart rate, blood pressure arm, blood pressure leg) and ventilatory adaptation (VO2, VCO2, fr Vt, VE) were monitored. Blood pressure in the arm, blood concentrations of lactate and ventilatory parameters showed an evolution statistically dependent on the work to which the subject was submitted. Heart rate showed a statistically significant correlation with the ventilatory parameters and work load. The proportional response of the cardioventilatory parameters to the increase in the work load allowed us to evaluate the repercussion of a given exercise and thus avoid exercise of an excessive intensity that could produce cardiocirculatory changes that might entail an added risk. Heart rate presents an excellent correlation, shown in this work, with the oxygen consumption and could therefore be used to quantify the cardiorespiratory and metabolic repercussion of the exercise carried out. Furthermore, this quantification may allow for the adaptation of exercise intensity to the patient thus improving the results obtained from the practice of exercise that has been proven so necessary in these patients.
 
 
Objective: To analyze the lipid and glycemic profiles in relation to age, time elapsed post injury and the level of injury in a group of patients with SCI.
The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a polyunsaturated n-6 high-fat diet on rat DMBA-induced breast cancer at different stages of the carcinogenesis and to investigate if changes in the tumor fatty acid composition are one of the mechanisms by which dietary lipids could exert their effects. 14 fatty acids were evaluated in 6 lipid fractions. The results firstly showed that this high-fat diet stimulated the malignant mammary tumor growth, mainly all in the promotion group. The tumor lipid analysis indicated: 1) that each lipid fraction presented distinct major fatty acids (>5%) which were not the most abundant in the diet, except in the case of the triacylglicerides, suggesting the different resistance to dietary fatty acid modification of the tumor lipid fractions; 2) a higher arachidonic acid content in the fractions with less linoleic acid, above all in phospholipids, particularly in the phosphatidylethanolamine, indicating a different efficiency of conversion; 3) the three most abundant fatty acids in the dietary lipid (18:2n-6, 18:1n-9 and 16:0) were those which essentially displayed the differences between groups; thus, the high-fat diet changed the tumor lipid profile, increasing the 18:2n-6 relative content and decreasing that of the 18:1n-9; differences were significant in phosphatidylcholine, free fatty acids and triacylglycerides. Any change was obtained in the phosphatidylinositol. The greatest number of differences was found in the promotion group. Taken as a whole, our results suggest the different roles of lipid fractions in breast cancer cells and an association between cancer malignancy and the content of linoleic and oleic acids.
Blood lactate concentrations in capillary samples obtained from the ear lobe or from the finger tip are used indistinctly, since they are considered equivalents. The aim of the study reported in this paper was to verify whether that assumption is valid due to the practical implications which any possible differences between these two sampling sites would have in the planning and assessing of an athletic training program. Twenty six healthy male athletes competing in different sports at the national level (9 rowers, 7 cyclists and 10 runners) were studied during the performance of a graded exercise test up to the point of exhaustion, on specific ergometers. In each group, capillary blood samples were obtained simultaneously from both the ear lobe and the finger tip at three different times during the test: 1) in resting conditions; 2) when exercising at a submaximal work load and 3) seven minutes after the point of exhaustion. Significant differences were found between the blood lactate concentrations of samples obtained from the ear lobe and from the finger tip (p < 0.001). The method error of repeated measurements for lactate concentrations from paired samples obtained in resting conditions was 27%, when exercising at a submaximal work load, 16% and at maximal work load, 3%. Capillary blood samples collected from the finger tip consistently showed higher values in lactate concentration than those obtained, at the same time, from the ear lobe.
The differences in ventilatory response to exercise of some highland ethnic communities is a controversial issue. We have evaluated the differences in ventilatory response to exercise at sea level between two groups of elite climbers, four Himalayan Sherpas (S) and four Caucasian lowlanders (C), after descent from extreme altitude. All of them performed a progressive-intensity exercise test on a treadmill under normoxic conditions. Pulmonary gas exchange was obtained until exhaustion by means of an automatic gas-analyzer system. Significant differences in expired ventilation and carbon dioxide production were found between the two groups, the e being lower in the S at rest (41.9±5) in comparison with C (48.7±9) (P<0.05), higher at medium loads of the test (S=28.2±4 vs. C=25.7±2; P<0.05) and reaching similar values at higher loads (S=34.5±2 vs. C=35.6±4; NS). We conclude that the special ventilatory response observed in these highlanders could explain their adaptation to altitude, allowing higher oxygen blood saturation at medium working loads and reducing the risk of neurological injury caused by a high ventilatory response when exercising at high intensity effort under extreme altitude environment.
Running economy (RE), defined as the steady-state of oxygen uptake (V˙O2) for a given running velocity, is a factor of sports performance the genetic component of which has seldom been reported to date. We studied this component using a heritability index (HI) in a group of 32 male twins, 8 monozygotic (MZ) and 8 dizygotic (DZ) pairs, all sportsmen with similar perinatal and environmental backgrounds. Zygocity was determined by the identity of erythrocytic antigenic, protein and enzymatic polymorphism, and human leucocyte antigen serologic types between co-twins. The subjects exercised twice on a treadmill, once until exhaustion and again at submaximal intensities. Pulmonary gas exchange was measured continuously using an automatic analyser system during both tests. Blood samples were obtained during the recovery period to determine lactate concentrations. No significant differences were observed between MZ and DZ, in respect of RE at any speed or in maximal V˙O2 relative to body mass. Nevertheless, significant HI (P < 0.05) was found in maximal lactate concentrations (HI = 0.75) and in respiratory equivalent for oxygen at two speeds, 7 km · h−1 (HI = 0.71) and 8 km · h−1 (HI = 0.79), differences which probably suggest that there are differences in RE. In conclusion, we did not detect a genetic component in RE or in maximal oxygen uptake, but a genetic component for markers of anaerobic metabolism was present.
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that saliva lactate concentrations may reflect those present in blood and that saliva lactate can be used as a very convenient and useful variable in the study of anaerobic metabolism. METHODS: Parallel determinations were made of lactate in saliva and in capillary blood samples, obtained at 3 min intervals from nine individuals during the performance of a maximum graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer against increasing workloads (from 25 up to a maximum of 300 W). Lactate determinations were done by means of an electroenzymatic method using 25 microliters samples in both types of fluids. RESULTS: For each situation, the concentration of lactate in saliva was shown to be about 15% of that in plasma but it followed the same pattern of evolution during the exercise test. A good correlation (r = 0.81) between blood and saliva lactate concentrations was found. The precision of the method was very good, with a coefficient of variation ranging (n = 10) between 2.2% for samples with very low lactate concentrations and 0.7% for sample with moderate lactate concentrations. Lactate appeared to be very stable in saliva over a period of 40 days after collection, when kept at 4 degrees C. The values obtained after this period were virtually identical to those shown in fresh samples. CONCLUSIONS: Determination of lactate in saliva can be used as an alternative to determination in blood, overcoming most of the drawbacks of the procedures being used at present, since the collection of the samples required no special expertise.
Creatine supplementation has been shown by several authors to improve physical performance in very high intensity, intermittent, exercises. The effect on performance, as well as in plasma creatine and lactate concentrations has been studied in a group of twelve sprinters of national class when running a distance of 150 m on two occasions, before and after creatine (or placebo) supplementation for the previous three days. The most important differences in the biochemical parameters analyzed have been in plasma creatinine concentration, which increased substantially both before and after the race in the group that had received a daily supplement of 25 grams of creatine monohydrate for the previous three days. Creatine supplementation, therefore, did not improve physical performance, in the conditions, when running a 150 m distance.
Creatine supplementation has been shown by several authors to improve physical performance in very high intensity, intermittent, exercises. The effect on performance, as well as in plasma creatine and lactate concentrations has been studied in a group of twelve sprinters of national class when running a distance of 150 m on two occasions, before and after creatine (or placebo) supplementation for the previous three days. The most important differences in the biochemical parameters analyzed have been in plasma creatinine concentration, which increased substantially both before and after the race in the group that had received a daily supplement of 25 grams of creatine monohydrate for the previous three days. Creatine supplementation, therefore, did not improve physical performance, in the conditions, when running a 150 m distance.
Creatine supplementation has been shown by several authors to improve physical performance in very high intensity, intermittent, exercises. The effect on performance, as well as in plasma creatine and lactate concentrations has been studied in a group of twelve sprinters of national class when running a distance of 150 m on two occasions, before and after creatine (or placebo) supplementation for the previous three days. The most important differences in the biochemical parameters analyzed have been in plasma creatinine concentration, which increased substantially both before and after the race in the group that had received a daily supplement of 25 grams of creatine monohydrate for the previous three days. Creatine supplementation, therefore, did not improve physical performance, in the conditions, when running a 150 m distance.
A study was conducted to determine if prolonged exercise could provoke sympathetic neuronal alteration in an athlete's heart through assessment of myocardial distribution of 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in nine ultramarathon runners at baseline and after a 4-hour race. After injection of 370 MBq of 123I-MIBG, the athletes ran for 4 hours, covering 45 +/- 8 km. Planar and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images of the thorax were acquired at the end of the race. Two weeks later, studies at baseline were performed. A heart:mediastinum ratio (HMR) was calculated to quantify MIBG uptake. Basal MIBG studies showed normal myocardial tracer uptake, on both planar and SPECT images, and the HMR was 1.84 +/- 0.16. After the 4-hour race, MIBG studies showed decreased myocardial uptake in all athletes, and the HMR was 1.70 +/- 0.18 (p < 0.005). A positive correlation between the percentage of decrease of HMR after the race and the distance covered was observed (r = .910, p < 0.001). Myocardial MIBG activity is decreased by prolonged exercise in long-distance runners. The degree of reduction of myocardial MIBG activity is related to the distance covered. Prolonged exercise, as sustained sympathetic stimulus, may alter myocardial distribution of MIBG.
Whether changes in the training schedule are capable of modifying the daily pattern of performance has been studies. Twelve swimmers were selected to determine their performance in 25 meter crawl races. Their body temperature was also measured. This group was subsequently divided into 3 subgroups: Sub-group 1, made up of 2 subjects who acted as the control subgroup, trained only in the afternoon; Sub-group 2, composed of 5 subjects, trained only in the morning; and Subgroup 3, also made up of 5 subjects, trained in the afternoon but with an additional session of 10 min of swimming in the morning. All subjects followed their corresponding training pattern for three weeks after which they were subjected to a second study or testing day. Thereafter, they all trained one more week according to the same habitual schedule in the evening; after that, they were tested again. A significant variance in the performance time was observed throughout the day (a maximum performance being observed at around 20:30 h), although the changes introduced in the training schedule did not modify the curve of performance.
Himalayan Sherpas are well known for their extraordinary adaptation to high altitude and some of them for their outstanding physical performance during ascents to the highest summits. To cast some light on this subject, we evaluated the cardiorespiratory response during exercise at sea level of six of the most acknowledged Sherpa climbers, mean age (±SD) 37 (±7) yr old. Continuous electrocardiogram and breath-by-breath pulmonary gas exchange until exhaustion were obtained by following the Bruce protocol. We detected a maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2max ) of 66.7 (±3.7) mL.min -1 .kg -1 , maximal cardiac frequency of 199 (±7) beats.min -1 , and ventilatory anaerobic threshold at 62 (±4) % of VO 2max . These factors could help to explain the greater performance level shown by several elite climbers of this ethnic group. The high functional reserve demonstrated by this very select group of highlanders could be associated with natural selection and with special physiological adaptations probably induced by long-training in a hostile environment.
Whether changes in the training schedule are capable of modifying the daily pattern of performance has been studies. Twelve swimmers were selected to determine their performance in 25 meter crawl races. Their body temperature was also measured. This group was subsequently divided into 3 subgroups: Sub-group 1, made up of 2 subjects who acted as the control subgroup, trained only in the afternoon; Sub-group 2, composed of 5 subjects, trained only in the morning; and Subgroup 3, also made up of 5 subjects, trained in the afternoon but with an additional session of 10 min of swimming in the morning. All subjects followed their corresponding training pattern for three weeks after which they were subjected to a second study or testing day. Thereafter, they all trained one more week according to the same habitual schedule in the evening; after that, they were tested again. A significant variance in the performance time was observed throughout the day (a maximum performance being observed at around 20:30 h), although the changes introduced in the training schedule did not modify the curve of performance.
1. The power of the aerobic metabolic pathway correlates well with successful physical performance in endurance sports events. The ability to alter the pathway through training presents well-known limitations, and consequently a good genetic endowment is essential to participate in elite sporting activities. 2. In 32 subjects (16 healthy pairs of male twin sportsmen, 8 monozygotic and 8 dizygotic) zygosity was determined by means of the genetic analysis of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) system specificities at class I and II loci and other genetic variants. The subjects performed a progressive exercise test on a treadmill to ascertain the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), measured by an automatic breath-by-breath analyser. We have considered the relationship between the A, B and C loci of the HLA system and VO2max. 3. We found a high correlation between the presence of both HLA A2 and A11 and VO2max. In the A2A11 group (n = 6) we found a VO2max (mean +/- SD) equal to 71 +/- 4 ml min-1 kg-1. The group without this pair of alleles (n = 26) showed a much lower aerobic power (58 +/- 5 ml min-1 kg-1). Differences between the two groups were found to be largely significant (P < 0.001). It is noteworthy that in two pairs of dizygotic twins, the higher VO2max value corresponded to the twin with the A2A11 allele. 4. The very marked concordance between the presence of the A2A11 locus of the HLA system and the VO2max could be of great interest for the identification of outstanding performers.
To detect whether the drop in performance around lunch has any direct association with the time of food ingestion, a group of 8 sprinters were studied for 5 consecutive Saturdays. On each testing day, the times achieved during 80 meter sprints performed at eight different times of the day separated by 2 hour intervals were recorded. The 1st and 4th testing days, had identical sleep and mealtime schedules, and were therefore considered "control days", while on the 2nd and 3rd testing days the schedule was brought forward ("advanced") or backward ("delayed") by 2 hours respectively. On the 5th testing day the sleep-wake cycle was brought forward 2 hours without changing the mealtime schedule. A post-lunch dip (PLD) was detected on all testing days although at different times. No significant differences in performance were observed between days 1 and 4 while there were differences in performance during the other testing days. It is worth pointing out that PLD occurred at about 15:00 h on the control days, with significant differences between the 2nd (p < 0.05) and 3rd days (p < 0.05), and with the deterioration in performance starting at 15:00 h on the 3rd day despite the fact that lunch had been served at 16:00 h. In conclusion, PLD does not appear to be directly linked to the time of lunch, although lunch itself could potentiate its effects. It is also worth mentioning the fact that this deteriorating effect does not occur after any other meals of the day.
Himalayan Sherpas are well known for their extraordinary adaptation to high altitude and some of them for their outstanding physical performance during ascents to the highest summits. To cast light on this subject, we evaluated the cardiorespiratory response during exercise at sea level of six of the most acknowledged Sherpa climbers, mean age (+/- SD) 37 (+/- 7) yr old. Continuous electrocardiogram and breath-by-breath pulmonary gas exchange until exhaustion were obtained by following the Bruce protocol. We detected a maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) of 66.7 (+/- 3.7) mL-min-1.kg-1, maximal cardiac frequency of 199 (+/- 7) beats.min-1, and ventilatory anaerobic threshold at 62 (+/- 4) % of VO2max. These factors could help to explain the greater performance level shown by several elite climbers of this ethnic group. The high functional reserve demonstrated by this very select group of highlanders could be associated with natural selection and with special physiological adaptations probably induced by long-training in a hostile environment.